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Salamander Ceramic Infrared Emitters Technical Manual Page 17

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Thermoforming Example (cont.):

Two infrared heater panels will be used. One panel will heat the top of the PVC sheet, the other will heat the bottom of the PVC sheet. Heating both the top and bottom of the PVC sheet will minimize the temperature gradient within the sheet which could cause "part" deformation. Since two infrared panels will be used, the power required per panel is 1/2 of the 10.74 Watts / in2. Therefore, 5.37 Watts / in2 is required from each infrared panel.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law:

R = (.82)(36.58072 x 10 -12 )( ( T1 )4 - ( T2 )4 ) = 5.37

T1= Source Temperature
T2 = Average PVC Temperature = (65+350)/2 = 208 F
T2 = 371 K

Solve the equation for the source temperature.

        = 667 K          ( 741 F or 394 C)

The surface temperature of the source must be at least 741F (394 C) to achieve a 350 F (177 C) PVC sheet temperature within 1 minute.

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5880 Alpine Ave. NW - Comstock Park, MI 49321  USA
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